Visit Website Octavius donned the toga, the Roman sign of manhood, at age 16, and began taking on responsibilities through his family connections. He was shipwrecked along the way, and had to cross enemy territory to reach his great-uncle—an act that impressed Caesar enough to name Octavius his heir and successor in his will. In retaliation, Octavian declared war on Cleopatra.
Legitimacy[ edit ] This article is about legitimate Roman emperors. For other individuals claiming the title of Emperor, see List of Roman usurpers. The emperors listed in this article are those generally agreed to have been 'legitimate' emperors, and who appear in published regnal lists.
In Augustus' original formulation, the princeps was selected by either the Senate or "the people" of Rome, but quite quickly the legions became an acknowledged stand-in for "the people. The coercion that frequently resulted was implied in this formulation.
Furthermore, a sitting emperor was empowered to name a successor and take him on as apprentice in government and in that case the Senate had no role to play, although it sometimes did when a successor lacked the power to inhibit bids by rival claimants.
By the medieval or "Byzantine" period, the very definition of the Senate became vague as well, adding to the complication. Many of the 'legitimate' emperors listed here acceded to the position by usurpation, and many 'illegitimate' claimants had a legitimate claim to the position. Any individual who undisputedly ruled the whole Empire, at some point, is a 'legitimate emperor' 1.
Any individual who was nominated as heir or co-emperor by a legitimate emperor 1and who succeeded to rule in his own right, is a legitimate emperor 2.
Where there were multiple claimants, and none were legitimate heirs, the claimant accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor is the legitimate emperor 3at least during the Principate. So for instance, Aurelianthough acceding to the throne by usurpation, was the sole and undisputed monarch between — AD, and thus was a legitimate emperor.
Gallienus, though not in control of the whole Empire, and plagued by other claimants, was the legitimate heir of the legitimate emperor Valerian.
Claudius Gothicusthough acceding illegally, and not in control of the whole Empire, was the only claimant accepted by the Senate, and thus, for his reign, was the legitimate emperor.
Equally, during the Year of the Four Emperorsall claimants, though not undisputed, were at some point accepted by the Senate and are thus included; conversely, during the Year of the Five Emperors neither Pescennius Niger nor Clodius Albinus were accepted by the Senate, and are thus not included.
There are a few examples where individuals were made co-emperor, but never wielded power in their own right typically the child of an emperor ; these emperors are legitimate, but are not included in regnal lists, and in this article are listed together with the 'senior' emperor.
Emperors after [ edit ] Afterthe list of emperors in the East is based on the same general criteria, with the exception that the emperor only had to be in undisputed control of the Eastern part of the empire, or be the legitimate heir of the Eastern emperor.
The situation in the West is more complex. Throughout the final years of the Western Empire — the Eastern emperor was considered the senior emperor, and a Western emperor was only legitimate if recognized as such by the Eastern emperor.
Furthermore, after the Western emperor ceased to be a relevant figure and there was sometimes no claimant at all. For the sake of historical completeness, all Western Emperors after are included in this list, even if they were not recognized by the Eastern Empire;  some of these technically illegitimate emperors are included in regnal lists, while others are not.
For instance, Romulus Augustulus was technically a usurper who ruled only the Italian peninsula and was never legally recognized.
However, he was traditionally considered the "last Roman Emperor" by 18th and 19th century western scholars and his overthrow by Odoacer used as the marking point between historical epochs, and as such he is usually included in regnal lists. However, modern scholarship has confirmed that Romulus Augustulus' predecessor, Julius Nepos continued to rule as emperor in the other Western holdings and as a figurehead for Odoacer's rule in Italy until Nepos' death in Since the question of what constitutes an emperor can be ambiguous, and dating the "fall of the Western Empire" arbitrary, this list includes details of both figures.23 rows · The Roman emperors were rulers of the Roman Empire, wielding power over its citizens .
ROLE OF ROMAN EMPERORS IN THE SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY The very cruelty and hate of Christianity that various Roman emperors exhibited actually worked in favor of that religion.
As it is said, "The blood of martyrs is the seed of the Church," for in many ways, persecution was beneficial to the new religion. Persecution gave the Christians a. Roman Emperors.
Roman Emperors. Background: Roman emperor was the ruler of Rome during the period of imperial rule. In 27 BC Rome transformed into an empire from republic.
Julius Caesar played the most vital role in this transformation and his son, Octavian (Augustus) is commonly considered as the first Roman Emperor. List of Roman Emperors.
On these pages, you will find the names, regnal dates, and portraits of the emperors of the Roman Empire, with links to more information. 1st century. 2nd century. 3rd century. Gallic Empire. Palmyra. 4th century. 5th century (West) Byzantine Empire. Julius Caesar Julius Caesar. However, some Romans wanted the republic government back in power.
In 44 BC, just a year after Caesar was made dictator, Marcus Brutus assassinated Caesar.
However, the new republic did not last long as Caesar's heir, Octavius, was already powerful. He took Caesar's place and eventually become the first Emperor of the new Roman Empire. Aug 21, · Known for his philosophical interests, Marcus Aurelius was one of the most respected emperors in Roman history.
He was born into a wealthy and politically prominent family. Growing up, Marcus.