Areas of research include improving job performance, increasing job satisfaction, promoting innovation and encouraging leadership. In order to achieve the desired results, managers may adopt different tactics, including reorganizing groups, modifying compensation structures and changing the way performance is evaluated. History While organizational behavior as a field of academic study was not fully recognized by the American Psychological Association until the s, its roots go back to the late s when the Hawthorne Electric Company set up a series of experiments designed to discern how changes in environment and design changed the productivity of their employees.
Unlike a general business negotiation and law suit Organizational negotiations that are not regulated by statutory provisions, a collective bargaining negotiation is mandated and governed by external laws.
Many different statutes comes into play during the negotiation process. Federal workers are covered by the Civil Service Reform Act, while state and local government personnel are under state public sector bargaining laws. Under the applicable statutes, employees have the right to organize and to select exclusive bargaining agents to negotiate collective agreements defining their wages, hours, and working conditions.
They may engage in concerted activity for mutual aid and protection. For private sector workers, this allows them the protected right to strike. Although federal workers and most state and local employees are prohibited from striking, several states do permit non-essential personnel to participate in work stoppages.
Individuals who engage in a lawful economic strike may not be dismissed or otherwise disciplined for such protected activity, but under the Mackay Radio decision of the Supreme Court they may be permanently replaced.
After they have been replaced, they maintain preferential recall rights and must be rehired as positions become available before outside persons are hired. Labour unions are chosen by a majority of workers in an appropriate bargaining unit, which may consist of homogeneous skilled workers or heterogeneous industrial workers, become the particular bargaining agent for all of the individuals within that unit.
They have the right to demand bargaining over the wages, hours, and working conditions of the affected employees. On the other hand, the NLRA specifically indicates that the duty to bargain does not require either party to agree to specific proposals or to make concessions.
They are merely obliged to meet at regular times and to discuss the pertinent issues in good faith.
One aspect of labour-management negotiations that is different from many other types of bargaining interactions involves the on-going relationship between the parties. After collective discussions are completed, the parties must continue to deal with each other.
Union and management negotiators must continue to meet to resolve disagreements that may occur with respect to the application of bargaining agreement provisions, and employees and managers must work together to produce profitable goods or services if the firm is to be successful.
If union negotiators drive a hard bargain that unduly inflates labour costs, workers will be displaced by new technology or have their jobs transferred to lower cost areas of the U. If the company treats its workers badly, morale will suffer, and good workers may seek employment elsewhere.
Employees may also be less committed to firm success, causing a decrease of productivity or a reduction in work quality. A factor which makes collective bargaining negotiations relatively unique entails the many issues that have to be addressed.
Many types of compensation have to be discussed, including hourly wages, piecework rates, fringe benefits such as pensions and health care, and similar issues. What hours will the employees have to work, when will breaks and meal periods be scheduled?
Almost any working condition of interest to employees might also have to be discussed. The expansive number of issues requires drawn-out negotiations that may go on for weeks or months, as the parties try to resolve the different topics.
On the other hand, many of the bargaining subjects allows the parties to trade issues in ways that allow them to expand the overall pie to be divided and maximize the joint return involved. Corporations should concede issues union leaders value more for topics management officials prefer.
This permits the negotiating parties to seek win-win results that satisfy the underlying interests of both sides. The multi-factor aspects of collective bargaining interactions creates the need for thorough pre-negotiation preparation especially important.
Both labour and management negotiators should sit down with the people on their respective sides before they ever meet with their opponents to decide which items need to be addressed and to ascertain their priorities. Which terms are vital; which are important; and which are desirable?
They should decide which lower value issues they are prepared to trade for preferred terms. Which topics should they plan to raise first and which later? Most negotiators favour starting their interactions with less significant subjects hoping to reach tentative agreements on these topics before they move on to more important issues.
This allows them to focus initially on areas subject to joint gains, while they start to create a psychological commitment to final accords.
In addition, neither side wants to see their prior tentative agreements disappear through a work stoppage and they both become more accommodating with respect to the controversial terms.
There will always be distributive negotiating items that both sides value. These issues generally entail monetary terms.
Even in this area, however, if negotiators are willing to think outside the box and seek innovative solutions, they may be able to expand the pie and simultaneously enhance their respective positions.Chapter 10 Conflict and Negotiations. Learning Objectives. After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following: An examination of the strategic display of positive, negative, and neutral emotions in negotiations.
Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 99, 81– and that during online negotiations. negotiations within negotiations One aspect of negotiations seldom addressed is that of the negotiations which take place on each side of the table, in contrast to those which take place across the negotiating table.
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes () 84– Social incentives for gender diVerences in the propensity to initiate negotiations: Sometimes it does hurt to ask Recent developments in the study of gender in negotia-tion have made clear that gender eVects in negotiation.
Start studying Organizational Behavior. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The modern framework for negotiation is broken: Most of the prevailing theories see negotiations as battles in which the players act rationally in their own best interests.
Organizational behavior (OB) is the study of the way people interact within groups. Normally this study is applied in an attempt to create more efficient business organizations.