Fundamentals of Industrial Engineering. Basic concepts of industrial engineering for students who lack an undergraduate degree in the discipline, including:
Steam reforming There are four main sources for the commercial production of hydrogen: The resulting endothermic reaction breaks up the methane molecules and forms carbon monoxide CO and hydrogen H2. The carbon monoxide gas can then be passed with steam over iron oxide or other oxides and undergo a water gas shift reaction to obtain further quantities of H2.
The downside to this process is that its major byproducts are CO, CO2 and other greenhouse gases.
This oxidation also provides energy to maintain the reaction. Additional heat required to drive the process is generally supplied by burning some portion of the methane. CO2 sequestration[ edit ] Steam reforming generates carbon dioxide CO2.
Since the production is concentrated in one facility, Combustion optimization thesis is possible to separate the CO2 and dispose of it without atmospheric release, for example by injecting it in an oil or gas reservoir see carbon capturealthough this is not currently done in most cases.
A carbon dioxide injection project has been started by the Norwegian company Statoil in the North Seaat the Sleipner field. This can deliver benefits for an oil refinery because it is more efficient than separate hydrogensteam and power plants.
A fuel-air or fuel-oxygen mixture is partially Combustion optimization thesis resulting in a hydrogen rich syngas. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are obtained via the water-gas shift reaction.
The partial oxidation reaction occurs when a substoichiometric fuel-air mixture or fuel-oxygen is partially combusted in a reformer or partial oxidation reactor. The chemical reaction takes the general form: A variation of this process is presented in using plasma arc waste disposal technology for the production of hydrogen, heat and carbon from methane and natural gas in a plasma converter  Coal[ edit ] For the production of hydrogen from coalcoal gasification is used.
The process of coal gasification uses steam and a carefully controlled concentration of gases to break molecular bonds in coal and form a gaseous mix of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The gas obtained from coal gasification can later be used to produce electricity more efficiently and allow a better capture of greenhouse gases than the traditional burning of coal.
Another method for conversion is low temperature and high temperature coal carbonization. The syngas in this case consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and H2S, depending on the sulfur content of the coke feed.
Gasification is an attractive option for producing hydrogen from almost any carbon source, while providing attractive hydrogen utilization alternatives through process integration. Water splitting Many technologies have been explored but it should be noted that as of "Thermal, thermochemical, biochemical and photochemical processes have so far not found industrial applications.
Electrolysis of water Electrolysis consists of using electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Due to their use of water, a readily available resource, electrolysis and similar water-splitting methods have attracted the interest of the scientific community.
With the objective of reducing the cost of hydrogen production, renewable sources of energy have been targeted to allow electrolysis. At these high temperatures a significant amount of the energy required can be provided as thermal energy heatand as such is termed High temperature electrolysis.
The heat energy can be provided from a number of different sources, including waste industrial heat, nuclear power stations or concentrated solar thermal plants. This has the potential to reduce the overall cost of the hydrogen produced by reducing the amount of electrical energy required for electrolysis.
To assess the claimed efficiency of an electrolyser it is important to establish how it was defined by the vendor i. There are two main technologies available on the market, alkaline and proton exchange membrane PEM electrolysers. Traditionally, alkaline electrolysers are cheaper in terms of investment they generally use nickel catalystsbut less efficient; PEM electrolysers, conversely, are more expensive they generally use expensive platinum-group metal catalysts but are more efficient and can operate at higher current densities, and can therefore be possibly cheaper if the hydrogen production is large enough.
In many cases, the advantage of electrolysis over SMR hydrogen is that the hydrogen can be produced on-site, meaning that the costly process of delivery via truck or pipeline is avoided.
This makes production of hydrogen via electrolysis cost competitive in many regions already, as outlined by Nel Hydrogen  and others, including an article by the IEA  examining the conditions which could lead to a competitive advantage for electrolysis.The expected Program outcomes (POs) of the iridis-photo-restoration.com in Civil Engineering are as follows: Graduates will be able to apply knowledge of mathematics, science and .
Sun, Y., "Diesel Combustion Optimization and Emissions Reduction using Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) with Improved Numerical Models," Ph.D. Thesis, Engine Research Center, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin - Madison, This article covers key and representative developments in the area of high efficiency and clean internal combustion engines.
The main objective is to highlight recent efforts to improve (IC) engine fuel efficiency and combustion. A Study on Performance and Emissions of a 4-stroke IC Engine Operating on Landfill Gas with the Addition of H2, CO and Syngas A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the.
DOE Merit Review – UW-ERC 1 “University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control” Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion. PROCESS ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM VEGETABLE OILS A Thesis by LAY L. MYINT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of.